- Case report
- Open Access
Choroidal melanoma metastasizing to maxillofacial bones
© Pandey et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2007
- Received: 26 December 2006
- Accepted: 08 March 2007
- Published: 08 March 2007
Melanomas are malignant neoplasm of melanocytic origin, commonly seen on skin and various mucous membranes. Melanomas are the commonest intraocular malignant tumour in the adults.
A 50-year-old female presented with complains of painless progressive swelling in right cheek region of two months duration. Examination revealed a 6 × 4 cm bony hard swelling in right zygomatic region near and below lateral canthus of right eye with loss of vision. Investigations revealed it to be a choroidal melanoma metastatising to the zygomatic bone. Patient was successfully treated by surgery.
Choroidal melanoma, which commonly metastasizes to liver and lungs, never involves the lymph nodes and metastasis to facial bones is rare. Here we report a case of choroidal melanoma metastasizing to maxillofacial bones.
- Vitreous Haemorrhage
- Clear Cell Sarcoma
- Choroidal Melanoma
- Zygomatic Bone
Choroidal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignant tumour . They arise from uveal melanocytes residing in the uveal stroma and originating from the neural crest . Choridal melanomas are quite different from their cutaneous counterparts with regards to presentation, metastatic pattern and treatment. The incidence of intraocular melanoma is less than 1 per 100000 . Spread to the liver is the most frequent while metastases  to other sites (lung , heart [6, 7], gastrointestinal tract, lymph nodes , pancreas, skin, central nervous system , bones, spleen, adrenal , kidneys, ovaries , thyroid , contralateral choroids  breast ) generally occur in association with liver metastases . Lymphatic spread has not been demonstrated, consistent with the absence of lymphatics in the choroid. To our knowledge choroidal melanoma metastasizing to the maxillofacial bones and presented with malar swelling is never been reported before.
Surgical excision was followed by 40 Gy./15 fractions of radiotherapy to right face using lateral portal. Patient is on regular follow-up two years after surgery and is free of any local or systemic recurrences.
Malignant neoplasms of melanocytic origin, malignant melanoma is rare in soft tissue and bone. In eyes it may involve choroids, ciliary body, retina or conjuctiva [15–17]. Choroidal melanomas are commonly asymptomatic and are often discovered during routine ophthalmic examination however; in some cases it may produce symptoms like loss of vision, photopsias and visual field defects . Intraosseous malignant melanoma on the other hand is extremely rare .
Diagnosis of choroidal melanoma is based on ophthalmoscopy, fluorescent angiography, scleral transillumination, B-scan ultrasonography, and sequential diagnostic examination . Tumour markers like TA-90 IC, Melan A, HMB-45, S-100 add to diagnostic accuracy . The classic signs of melanoma seen with B-mode ultrasonography include an acoustically silent zone within the melanoma, choroidal exacavation and acoustic shadowing of the orbit .
The treatment of choroidal melanoma includes local radiation with charged particles or epsiscleral plaque brachytherapy, tumour resection, enucleation and hyperthermia . Transpapillary thermotherapy (TTT) is new treatment for small melanomas and is capable and causing necrosis of tumour up to 3.0 mm thickness . Large melanomas (>10 mm in thickness or >1125 cm2 in basal area) are usually managed with enucleation .
When malignant melanoma is encountered in the bone three possibilities are considered for its origin 1) skeletal metastasis 2) direct bony invasion 3) primary clear cell sarcoma. Out of these a skeletal metastasis of malignant melanoma is most frequent cause. The other organs involved in case of metastasis are lungs, liver and brain . Clear cell sarcoma, or malignant melanoma of soft parts can invade the bone along the course of attachments of tendons and ligaments; however, this pattern of direct invasion has been considered to be exceedingly rare [17, 25]. Primary clear cell carcinoma arising from bone itself is also very rare. Direct bony invasion did not occur in this case since the lesions were 2 separate masses demonstrated on CT scan.
Malignant melanoma of bone has a variable and unpredictable course with high rate of recurrence after excision. Most authors recommend complete radical excision of the tumour along with excision of regional lymph nodes. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy may be of benefit as well. Despite treatment, the overall prognosis is poor and death usually access because of wide spread dissemination of disease .
Unlike cutaneous melanoma, malignant melanoma of the choroids does not metastasize to lymph nodes because they do not have lymphatic drainage however, they normally metastasize to liver, lungs or brain. Unusual metastasis poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The uniqueness of the case reported is its metastasis to maxillofacial bones (maxilla and zygoma) without involvement of lungs, liver or brain, which to our knowledge has not been documented earlier.
Written consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report.
- Albert DM, Jakobiel FA, Azar DT, Gragoudos ES, (Eds): Principles of practice of ophthalmology. 1999, W.B. Saunders, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Avery RB, Mehta MP, Auchter RM, Albert DM: Intraocular melanoma. Cancer Principles and practice of oncology. Edited by: DeVita VT Jr, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA. 2005, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publishers, Philadelphia, 7Google Scholar
- Inskip PD, Devesa SS, Fraumeni JF: Trends in the incidence of ocular melanoma in the United States, 1974–1998. Cancer Causes Control. 2003, 14: 251-257. 10.1023/A:1023684502638.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bedikian AY, Legha SS, Mavligit G, Carrasco CH, Khorana S, Plager C, Papadopoulos N, Benjamin RS: Treatment of uveal melanoma metastatic to the liver: a review of the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center experience and prognostic factors. Cancer. 1995, 76: 1665-1670. 10.1002/1097-0142(19951101)76:9<1665::AID-CNCR2820760925>3.0.CO;2-J.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tishler M, Greif J, Topilsky M: Solitary pulmonary metastasis of choroidal malignant melanoma simulating primary lung cancer. Eur J Respir Dis. 1986, 68: 215-217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gaudree L, Chabrun A, Corbi P, Levillain P, Herpin D: Intracardiac metastasis of malignant melanoma. Literature review and case report. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss. 2000, 93: 1339-1342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ruiz RS, El-Harazi S, Albert DM, Bryar PJ: Cardiac metastasis of choroidal melanoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 1999, 117: 1558-1559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dithmar S, Diaz CE, Grossniklaus HE: Intraocular melanoma spread to regional lymph nodes: report of two cases. Retina. 2000, 20: 76-79. 10.1097/00006982-200001000-00014.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Achtaropoulos AK, Mitsos AP, Detorakis ET, Georgakoulias NV, Drakonaki EE, Kozobolis : Plate isolated brain metastasis following enucleation for choroidal melanoma. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2005, 36: 151-154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vitri P, Caravati C, Guzzetti S, De Angelis S, Buzzi G, Gornati R: Adrenal metastasis of choroidal melanoma: a case report. Ann Ital Chir. 1994, 65: 537-541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Santeusanio G, Ventura L, Mauriello A, Carosi M, Spagnoli LG, Maturo P, Terranova L, Romanini C: Isolated ovarian metastasis from a spindle cell malignant melanoma of the choroid 14 years after enucleation: prognostic implication of the keratin immunophenotype. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2000, 8: 329-333. 10.1097/00022744-200012000-00011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gherardi G, Scherini P, Ambrosi S: Occult thyroid metastasis from untreated uveal melanoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 1985, 103: 689-691.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Singh AD, Shields JA, Shields CL, Sato T: Choroidal melanoma metastatic to the contralateral choroid. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001, 132: 941-943. 10.1016/S0002-9394(01)01150-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Demirci H, Shields CL, Shields JA, Eagle RC, Honavar SG: Bilateral breast metastases from choroidal melanoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001, 131: 521-523. 10.1016/S0002-9394(00)00816-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Inaoka T, Takahashi K, Tandai S, Miyokawa N, Abe Y, Matsuno T, Aburano T: Primary clear cell sarcoma (malignant melanoma) in the right radius. Skeletal Radiol. 2003, 32: 594-597. 10.1007/s00256-003-0665-6. Epub 2003 Aug 5View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Manolidis S, Donald PJ: Maliganant musocal melanoma of head and neck: review of the literature and report of 14 patients. Cancer. 1997, 80: 1373-1386. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19971015)80:8<1373::AID-CNCR3>3.0.CO;2-G.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cheny EB, Enzinger FM: Malignant melanoma of soft parts a reassessment of clear cell sarcoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 1983, 7: 405-413.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Garcia-Valenzuela E: Melanoma Choroidal. [accessed October 30, 2005], [http://www.emedicine.com/oph/topic403.htm]
- Albert DM: The ocular melanoma story III Edward Jackson Memorial lecture: part II. Am J Ophthalmol. 1997, 123: 729-734.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kelley MC, Jones RC, Gupta RK, Yee R, Stern S, Wanek L, Morton DL: Tumor-associated antigen TA-90 immune complex assay predicts subclinical metastasis and survival for patients with early stage melanoma. Cancer. 1998, 83: 1355-1361. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19981001)83:7<1355::AID-CNCR12>3.0.CO;2-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Char DH, Stone RD, Irvine AR, Crawford JB, Hilton GF, Lonn LI, Schwartz A: Diagnostic modalities in choroidal melanoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 1980, 89: 223-230.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shields JA, Shields CL, Donors LA: Management of post uveal melanoma. Ophthalmology. 1991, 36: 161-195.Google Scholar
- Godfrey DG, Waldron RG, Capone A: Transpupillary thermotherapy for small choroidal melanoma. Am J Ophthalmology. 1999, 128: 88-93. 10.1016/S0002-9394(99)00063-X.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Collaborative ocular melanoma study group: The collaborative ocular melanoma study (COMS) randomized trial of pre enucleated radiation of large choroidal melanoma: 1. Characteristic of patients enrolled and not enrolled. COMS report No. 9. Am J Opthalmol. 1998, 125: 767-778. 10.1016/S0002-9394(98)00038-5.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Deenik W, Mooi WJ, Routgers EJ, Peterse JL, Hart AA, Kroon BB: Clear Cell sarcoma (Malignant melanoma) of soft parts. A clinico pathologic study of 30 cases. Cancer. 1999, 86: 969-975. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19990915)86:6<969::AID-CNCR11>3.0.CO;2-Z.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lucas DR, Nascimento AG, Sim FH: Clear cell sarcoma of soft tissues: Mayoclinic experience with 35 cases. Am J Surgical Pathol. 1992, 16: 1197-1204. 10.1097/00000478-199212000-00006.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.